Theme 5. Adaptation to climate change
- Adapt to them in a least harmful way and communicate the impacts to the society and policy makers. When the impacts can be avoided low-cost, do so. Encouraging tourism (business travel, frequent travel, meetings non-stop) is part of the CC problem so avoid it. EMUNI
- Climate change impacts cannot be addressed in the same way for affected metropolitan areas and coastal ecosystems. Rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems with the implementation of nature-based solutions could be a good start but the results will not be effective if major infrastructures (in land, river basin districts and coastal areas) continue being developed without the proper environmental impact assessment. We do not need additional research here, we need a better understanding of national authorities of their own responsibility mitigating the impacts of climate change in coasts and marine areas of the Mediterranean. IOC-UNESCO
- Agriculture and fisheries, aquaculture and forestry, wildlife and urbanisation are part of the same integrated approach. We need to push up the trade-offs towards sustainability. FAO
- enforced maritime protection, coastal protection, sustainable river basin management of Med rivers, strategies for the conservation of cultural landscapes and urban heritage, development of resilience strategies to climate change. MED JS
- Reduction of carbonic gaz emission in different ways and minimize terrestrial wastes. INSTM – Tunisia
- Governments need to implement adaptation options such as cost-effective coastal protection measures, resilient infrastructures and utilities, coastal and marine spatial planning, regulations/legation and controls for marine pollution and sustainable development.
3. Mediterranean African governments need to promote the existing opportunities and partnership for the private sector engagement in the implementation of adaptation measures in coastal and urban zones. National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF),Egypt
- We need to invest more research and funding in nature-based solutions. Many intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats (including oyster reefs, saltmarshes, seagrasses) can attenuate local currents, dampen wave energy and accrete and stabilize sediments, thereby acting as effective buffer against flooding and erosion. These nature-based defenses are more sustainable and cost-effective than conventional coastal engineering and offer additional benefits, as restored ecosystems can support an array of other critical services, including water purification, carbon sequestration, nursery for fisheries, and space for wildlife and recreation. Also, nature-based solutions have greater potential to self-maintain and face change than traditional engineered approaches. In some countries forward-looking policies have begun to encourage pre-disaster spending (both public and private) that explicitly supports the use of natural infrastructure for risk reduction driving innovation towards new solutions for both preventative and recovery efforts. University of Bolognae
- -Launch studies to assess the effect of CC on coastal regions,
-Sensitize governments to launch anticipatory actions to combat the effect of CC. National Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies (Tunisia)
- 1-Activating the penal code for violators and those who cause environmental pollution
2-Adopting entrepreneurial ideas to solve these problems
3-Financial plans to implement reform projects annually
4-Activating the services policy between the countries of the Union in facing these challenges through cooperation among them by forming teams to determine the size of these problems and cooperation in facing them. Ministry of Economy – Palestine
- Increase scientific knowledge on specific climate change impacts in the Mediterranean coastal areas and propose nature-based solutions as much as possible. Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna
- Elaboration of recent studies about impact of climate change on Tourism coastal activities. AMFORHT
- The Mediterranean, due to its strategic position, is the only sea we can protect from the rising waters of the Atlantic Ocean as a result of the polar thaw. With this project, 24 countries can benefit at the same time and so will not have to do so individually (See MOSE in Venice); moreover, there are more than 15,000 islands and thousands of km of coastline that can be protected. Presa Puente Estrecho de Gibraltar, SA
- Protéger ce qu’on a déjà et préparer les gens et les lieux pour les effets des changements qui sont connus pour le moment. DynMed Alentejo – Associação para Estudos e Projectos de Desenvolvimento Regional Projectos de Dese
- Mettre en place un système de prédiction et de modélisation numérique pour évaluer les impacts des solutions à réaliser. Association Tunisienne de l’Ingénierie Côtière, Portuaire et Maritime (ATIM)
- Promote actions such as smart cities but in other areas and sectors: smart MPAs, smart ports, smart wetlands and coastal habitats management. Our research group is working on this (Smart marine protected areas). UNIVERSIDAD DE MURCIA
- Very clear timetabled realistic adaptation measures for the coastal zones including MPAs. This is again to be joined with very clear cooperation mechanism between the north and south and a robust stakeholder engagement. RAED – Arab Network for Environment and Development
- Scientific research and confidence in the scientific experts should be addressed.
Ecological engineering of shorelines schemes is an evolving discipline with the aim of building more inclusive, resilient, and safe coastal and marine structures for people and nature that maximize benefits for ecosystems, society, and economies.
To achieve a significant ecological uplift in urban waterfronts and coastalines there is a need for large-scale implantation, calling for practical solutions that can be simply and cost-effectively implemented by the conservative construction industry.
In an era of accelerated coastal development, we must promote innovative ways for developing more productive urban coastlines: “Living” urban/hard waterfronts that generate thriving habitats, instead of barren concrete seascapes.
The application of innovation, new technologies and designs that include and adapt to natural ecosystems and marine habitats is revealed as indispensable to face Climate Change. ECONCRETE
- – To implement nature-based solutions when possible
– To conserve natural coastal zones, or to promote the restoration of them, and to avoid urbanization with sustainable urban planning
– To apply a Circular Economy approach in the process of transforming the way we produce and consume goods and manage waste in coastal cities. BETA Tech Center, UVic/UCC – Interreg MED Green Growth
- Invest in science and capacity development. METU Institute of Marine Sciences
- Coastal protection strategies and plans should overcome the overlapping competences as and become really integrated, based on the best available knowledge and considering the complexity of marine, costal and terrestrial ecosystems. Coastal protection strategies must go hand in hand with river basin ones. We need to pass from “holding the line” to assume quite a degree of variability in our coastline , accept managed retreat as an option and explore the full potential of nature based solutions investing on the restoration of crucial coastal habitats as dunes systems and wetlands. The location of all types of infrastructures needs to also reconsider in territorial and city planning, maintaining at the coastline only those which cannot be elsewhere. According to this, a directive seems to be needed in order to make the member states to preserve their shores from extreme urbanization (housing, ports, etc.).
Non-MPA dunes, wetlands and coastal ecosystems must be protected by urban and territorial plans and laws. A Mediterranean inventory must be created in order to protect those areas. MedCities
- Targeted projects for stakeholders on coastal erosion and other imminent threats as a result of climate change in which best practices will be adopted and share among partners. REGION WESTERN GREECE
- First of all act for mitigation!. University of Siena
- Launch an integrated Programme on climate adaptation and mitigation strategies coupling Climate Change and Blue Growth activities. The Programme shall target the Mediterranean coasts tackling the impact of global change on Mediterranean marine ecosystems (food webs, biodiversity, habitats) and therefore on the following key social and economic drivers: fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, transport routes. Exploit appropriate observing systems (coastal-monitoring, early warning, platforms, etc.), adopt MSP tools to support management policies and share good practices and awareness raising of the populations among “maritime” cities to finally define a new green-blue strategy for the sustainable development of coastal cities, towards a zero emission circular economy, a reduction of pollution in adjacent shallow or deep seas, a wiser use of fresh water reservoirs, a preservation of fragile ecosystems and a mitigation of the impact of accelerating sea level rise. National Research Council of Italy
- – Ensure ecosystem resilience to climate change by protecting key functional habitats and species and by achieving sustainable development within the limit of marine ecosystem
– Support the development of new Green/Blue infrastructures to achieve an interconnected network of managed areas able to deliver ecosystem services
– Integrate and mainstream Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) within National Action Plans, climate actions and initiatives, and climate policy-related instruments
– Increase international and national, and public and private funding into NBS
– Develop new efficient restoration plans for degraded coastal and marine habitats such as seagrass meadows, macroalgal forest, coralligenous assemblages, and coastal wetlands and develop new technological solutions in coastal infrastructures (i.e. eco-engineering as artificial nursery areas)
– Support ecosystem-based ICZM and ensure it includes measures to enhance carbon sequestration and/or to protect carbon sinks. WWF
- Chaque pays doit disposer d’une stratégie nationale pour faire face au changement climatique. Mais les stratégies doivent être complémentaires. Ministère de l’agriculture, pêche maritime, développement durable eaux et forêts: département pêche maritime – Maroc
- Land reclamation and underwater mining should be monitored to ensure that they follow set rules to safeguard the environment. Malta Maritime Forum
- The role of Marine protected areas must be considered as a marine spatial management tool in supporting ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation to climate change (see recommendations from the 2020 Mediterranean MPA Roadmap / axis 5 – 2nd edition of the Mediterranean MPA Forum in Tangier in 2016).
Interesting recommendations from the MPA-Adapt Interreg Med project (coordinated by IUCN Med). MedPAN, the Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Network
- – Mainstream Nature-based solutions into national plans related to climate mitigation and adaptation, such as the NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) and NAPs (National Adaptation Plans) required under the Paris Agreement and DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction) plans in accordance with the Sendai Framework.
– Sustainably manage coastal and marine ecosystems, including wetlands, to enhance their capacity as carbon sinks and climate buffers, restore depleted fish stocks and protect marine biodiversity. Med Blue Growth community
- Climate change impacts should be well assessed and shared to regional, national and local policy and decision makers in order to promote adequate policies and actions of mitigation and adaptation, based on Nature and Ecosystem Approach. eco-union
- Climate change as a global threat couldn’t be faced in a reactive response, but rather through proactive measures, where the big polluter countries should abide by the recommendations of international treaties (The Paris Agreement, The Kyoto Protocol) in a compulsory way, not to be a choice! Otherwise, the impact of isolated, localized interventions at the national level, even consolidated, couldn’t reach the desired results of mitigating the repercussions of the climate change. The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and the global freezing of airplanes navigation, cars traffic and factories’ emissions, a clear decrease in air pollution has been noticed, which will reflect positively towards mitigating the effects of climate change, shows that globally synchronized measures is the only way to reach plausible results in this regard. This time was compulsory, we hope that we continue adopting it with free will!. Green Community NGO
- Je ne vois pas comment lutter contre l’augmentation du niveau de la mer.
Les ports doivent pouvoir réduire leurs émissions
Les ports doivent électrifier leurs infrastructures afin de militer les émissions à quai. ECOCEAN
- Sensibiliser les concepteurs de nouveaux projet et adapter les projets existantssensibiliser les concepteurs de nouveaux projet et adapter les projets existants. Agence nationale des ports Maroc
- The Mediterranean Basin has lost about 50 % of its coastal wetlands over the last 50 years due to uncontrolled coastal infrastructure developments and intensive water abstraction, both for tourism, agriculture and industry.
But what is less known and not enough recognised is that healthy wetlands are among the best available and cost-effective nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change effects that are already drastically affecting Mediterranean coastal communities, local economies and natural ecosystems.
The many services provided by wetlands, and in particular coastal wetlands, to fight climate change include:
– Absorption and sequestration of carbon: Wetlands are among the world’s most significant carbon sinks (estimates show they store up to 40% of the global carbon emissions)
– Contribution to mitigate temperature rise during hot waves
– Flood defences: coastal wetlands disperse and absorb excess water in case of floods due to extreme weather conditions and prevent soil erosion
– Protection from sea level rising: along the coast, wetlands buffer the land from waves and wind in case of coastal storms and protect cities and other coastal settlements from flood, farmland, drinking water supply and fresh water ecosystems from salty water intrusion.
– Water provision and purification: while climate change reduce the quantity and the quality of water and demand continue to rise, wetlands store and clean our drinking water
– Protecting a very rich biodiversity (countless of bird, fish, flora species, etc.) that ensures better resilience of coastal areas to climate change
– Food provision: sustainable aquaculture and coastal fisheries can both provide important low carbon sources of nutrition while reducing net carbon emission
To ensure that coastal wetlands continue to provide such positive responses to climate change and benefit the well-being of future generations of people and nature, the following measures have to be put in place and effectively implemented in all the Mediterranean countries:
– Forbid the conversion of all protected and non-protected coastal wetland ecosystems into farmland, urbanised, touristic or any other artificial coastal developments
– Encourage increased public and local stakeholder awareness of the importance and values of coastal wetlands as an efficient and cost-effective tool to tackle climate change for coastal human well-being, local economies and natural ecosystems
– Enhance local governance and stakeholder participation for their sustainable management, conservation and restoration (in Oristano Sardinia, effective local community governance structures are in place to ensure sustainable management of the coastal wetlands)
– Strengthen national legal and policy arrangements to conserve existing coastal wetlands and their enforcement. (For instance, In Morocco and Algeria national wetlands strategies are in place and developed, new Ramsar sites have been designated as recommended under the Ramsar Convention)
– Fully integrate coastal wetland conservation into coastal land-use planning and management with the involvement of all relevant national and local stakeholders
– Apply targeted and inclusive economic and financial incentives for coastal communities and businesses to safeguard and restore coastal wetlands
– Develop and implement management plans with nature-based solutions for all coastal Ramsar site and other protected coastal wetlands ( in Oristano, for instance riparian areas of lagoons/ponds and wetlands are restored with native plants, buffer strips using natural vegetation are used to replace old concrete cladding to mitigate impacts of farming run-off, reduce erosion, alien species are removed, etc.)
– Ensure connectivity of marine and terrestrial coastal systems integrating conservation measures on land and sea to preserve natural environmental processes
– Ensure water flow from inland watersheds to coastal wetlands and reduce water abstraction
– Carry out or update national inventories of coastal wetlands
– Recall Mediterranean countries’ commitments vis à vis the Ramsar convention, the Barcelona convention, the Paris Agreement on Climate change, the global biodiversity strategy and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in 2030
– Ensure coordinated actions at the regional level to ensure enhanced conservation, sustainable management and restoration of coastal wetlands and exchange of good practices between Mediterranean countries. MedWet